This means that there is no one date that one can be pointed to as the date of composition.Most scholars think that the final major redactions took place after 539 BCE, when Cyrus the Great conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire.According to Samaritan tradition, the Samaritans represent the true Israel from which others broke away, first under the influence of Eli the priest during the pre-monarchical period, and then through the “false cult” in Jerusalem and the deceptive work of Ezra in the early Second Temple period.The Torah, also known as the Pentateuch (from the Greek for “five books”), is the first collection of texts in the Hebrew Bible.Here I will lift a few sections from the book dealing with this fascinating and important topic. Historically, it was always said (as it is still often said by avid Bible readers today) that they were written by Moses, the great leader of the Israelites in the 13 century BCE, and main figure of all the books of the Pentateuch, except Genesis (the story of his birth is given at the opening of Exodus, and much of the rest of the Pentateuch is about him). The questions increased among European scholars during the seventeenth century; the questions came to be raised systematically in the eighteenth century; and they came to a head in the nineteenth century, when an entirely different view of authorship came be expressed and popularized, so much so that it now dominates scholarship. Since ancient times, the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament has existed in multiple versions or editions. Often, different readings or versions of the same scroll were kept side by side, all given religious authority and all receiving the same sacred respect.
There is a long and interesting history of the development of this method of biblical study that dates back to Jewish scholars in the eleventh century AD (see Biblical Evidence beyond Doctrine: Dealing with the Content of Scripture).
E., there was no “Bible” as we know it, only different scrolls and codices circulating in different communities.
The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) represents one textual tradition (in scholarly terms, a “recension”) that descends from an ancient and influential form of the five Books of Moses.
There have been various opinions as to whether these sources were written or oral traditions, and whether each source represents an independent strand or a stage in the development of an older source.
This particular way of studying the biblical text in terms of sources used in its compilation is called source analysis or very broadly literary analysis.